Introduction to RPCs: Signing Operations

This is article initially published by Fabrice Le Fessant, updated for Dune. Courtesy of OCamlPro.

In a previous blog post, we presented the RPCs used by dune-client to send a transfer operation to a dune-node. We were left with two remaining questions:

  • How to forge a binary operation, for signature
  • How to sign a binary operation

In this post, we will reply to these questions. We are still assuming a node running and waiting for RPCs on address Since we will ask this node to forge a request, we really need to trust it, as a malicious node could send a different binary transaction from the one we sent him.

Let’s take back our first operation:

"branch": "BMHBtAaUv59LipV1czwZ5iQkxEktPJDE7A9sYXPkPeRzbBasNY8",
"contents": [
  { "kind": "transaction",
    "source": "dn1GLMm5dMXRxCwqmkV22keRCcoWwrrani9F",
    "fee": "50000",
    "counter": "3",
    "gas_limit": "200",
    "storage_limit": "0",
    "amount": "100000000",
    "destination": "dn1dEUBy5oQ4HjXzC8QPZ4zniPiMCxisbbu5"
 } ]

So, we need to translate this operation into a binary format, more amenable for signature. For that, we use a new RPC to forge operations. Under Linux, we can use the tool curl to send the request to the node:

curl -v -X POST -H "Content-type: application/json" --data '{
"branch": "BMHBtAaUv59LipV1czwZ5iQkxEktPJDE7A9sYXPkPeRzbBasNY8",
"contents": [
  { "kind": "transaction",
    "source": "dn1GLMm5dMXRxCwqmkV22keRCcoWwrrani9F",
    "fee": "50000",
    "counter": "3",
    "gas_limit": "200",
    "storage_limit": "0",
    "amount": "100000000",
    "destination": "dn1dEUBy5oQ4HjXzC8QPZ4zniPiMCxisbbu5"
} ]

Note that we use a POST request (request with content), with a Content-type header indicating that the content is in JSON format. We get the following body in the reply


This is the binary representation of our operation, in hexadecimal format, exactly what we were looking for to be able to include operations on the blockchain. However, this representation is not yet complete, since we also need the operation to be signed by the manager.

To sign this operation, we will first use dune-client. That’s something that we can do if we want, for example, to sign an operation offline, for better security. Let’s assume that we have saved the content of the string (ce69…3c00 without the quotes) in a file operation.hex, we can ask dune-client to sign it with:

dune-client --addr --port 9731 sign bytes 0x03$(cat operation.hex) for bootstrap1

The 0x03$(cat operation.hex) is the concatenation of the 0x03 prefix and the hexa content of the operation.hex, which is equivalent to 0x03ce69…3c00. The prefix is used (1) to indicate that the representation is hexadecimal (0x), and (2) that it should start with 03, which is a watermark for operations in Dune.

We get the following reply in the console:

Signature: edsigtkpiSSschcaCt9pUVrpNPf7TTcgvgDEDD6NCEHMy8NNQJCGnMfLZzYoQj74yLjo9wx6MPVV29CvVzgi7qEcEUok3k7AuMg

Wonderful, we have a signature, in base58check format ! We can use this signature in the run_operation and preapply RPCs… but not in the injection RPC, which requires a binary format. So, to inject the operation, we need to convert to the hexadecimal version of the signature.  For that, we will use the base58check package of Python (we could do it in OCaml, but then, we could just use dune-client all along, no ?):

pip3 install base58check
>>>import base58check

All signatures in Dune start with 09f5cd8612, which is used to generate the edsig prefix. Also, the last 4 bytes are used as a checksum (e436e3a7). Thus, the signature itself is after this prefix and before the checksum: 637e08251cae64…174a8ff0d.

Finally, we just need to append the binary operation with the binary signature for the injection, and put them into a string, and send that to the server for injection. If we have stored the hexadecimal representation of the signature in a file signature.hex, then we can use

curl -v -H "Content-type: application/json" '' --data '"'$(cat operation.hex)$(cat signature.hex)'"'

and we receive the hash of this new operation:


Again, we cheated a little, by using dune-client to generate the signature. Let’s try to do it in Python, too !

First, we will need the secret key of bootstrap1. We can export from dune-client to use it directly:

$ dune-client show address bootstrap1 -S
Hash: dn1GLMm5dMXRxCwqmkV22keRCcoWwrrani9F
Public Key: edpkuBknW28nW72KG6RoHtYW7p12T6GKc7nAbwYX5m8Wd9sDVC9yav
Secret Key: unencrypted:edsk3gUfUPyBSfrS9CCgmCiQsTCHGkviBDusMxDJstFtojtc1zcpsh

The secret key is exported on the last line by using the -S argument, and it usually starts with edsk. Again, it is in base58check, so we can use the same trick to extract its binary value:

$ python3
>>> import base58check
>>> base58check.b58decode(b'edsk3gUfUPyBSfrS9CCgmCiQsTCHGkviBDusMxDJstFtojtc1zcpsh').hex()[8:72]

This time, we directly extracted the key, by removing the first 8 hexa chars, and keeping only 64 hexa chars (using [8:72]), since the key is 32-bytes long. Let’s suppose that we save this value in a file bootstrap1.hex.

Now, we will use the following script to compute the signature:

import binascii

seed = binascii.unhexlify(open("bootstrap1.hex","rb").readline()[:-1])

from pyblake2 import blake2b
h = blake2b(digest_size=32)
h.update(b'\x03' + operation)
digest = h.digest()

import ed25519
sk = ed25519.SigningKey(seed)
sig = sk.sign(digest)

The binascii module is used to read the files in hexadecimal (after removing the newlines), to get the binary representation of the operation and of the Ed25519 seed. Ed25519 is an elliptive curve used in Dune to manage dn1 addresses, i.e. to sign data and check signatures.

The blake2b module is used to hash the message, before signature. Again, we add a watermark to the operation, i.e. x03, before hashing. We also have to specify the size of the hash, i.e. digest_size=32, becase the Blake2b hashing function can generate hashes with different sizes.

Finally, we use the ed25519 module to transform the seed (private/secret key) into a signing key, and use it to sign the hash, that we print in hexadecimal. We obtain:


This result is exactly the same as what we got using dune-client !

We now have a complete wallet, i.e. the ability to create transactions and sign them without dune-client. Of course, there are several limitations to this work: first, we have exposed the private key in clear, which is usually not a very good idea for security; also, Dune supports three types of keys, dn1 for Ed25519 keys, dn2 for Secp256k1 keys (same as Bitcoin/Ethereum) and dn3 for P256 keys; finally, a realistic wallet would probably use cryptographic chips, on a mobile phone or an external device (Ledger, etc.).